MPPT Solar Charge Controller Manual for MC Series
this MPPT Solar Charge Controller Instruction applied to the MC2420N10/ MC2430N10/ MC2440N10/ MC2450N10 RV Controllers
The MC Series Solar Charge Controller enables maximum energy tracking for solar panels with the industry leading PowerCatcher MPPT technology. This technology allows the controller to quickly and accurately track the maximum power point of the PV array in any environment, obtain the maximum energy from the solar panel in real time, and significantly increase the energy utilisation efficiency of the solar power system.
This product can be connected to an external LCD screen or Bluetooth communication module and a PC master computer to dynamically display operating status, operating parameters, controller logs, control parameters, etc. The user can look up various parameters and modify the control parameters as needed to suit different system requirements.
The controller adopts the standard Modbus communication protocol, which is convenient for the user to view and modify the parameters of the system. Meanwhile, the company provides free monitoring software, which can maximize the convenience for users to meet different needs of remote monitoring.
The controller provides general electronic fault self-test and powerful electronic protection functions, which minimise component damage due to installation error and system failure.
PowerCatcher Maximum Power Point Tracking technology allows the controller to track the maximum power point of solar panels even in a complex environment. Compared to traditional MPPT tracking technology, it has a faster response time and higher tracking efficiency.
A built-in Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm can significantly increase the energy harvesting efficiency of the PV system, which is about 15% to 20% higher than traditional PWM charging.
It provides an active charging voltage regulation function. In case of battery open circuit or lithium battery BMS overcharge protection, the controller battery terminal will output the nominal charge voltage value.
The MPPT tracking efficiency is up to 99.9%.
Due to advanced digital power technology, the circuit energy conversion efficiency is up to 98%.
Available in multiple battery types and supports charging procedures of various types of batteries, such as lithium battery, colloidal battery, sealed battery, vented battery, Lifepo4 battery, etc.
A current-limited charging mode is available. If the power of the solar panel is too high and the charging current is higher than the rated current of the valve, the controller will automatically reduce the charging power so that the solar panel can operate at the rated charging current.
Supports automatic identification of lead-acid battery voltage.
An external LCD Screen or Bluetooth module can be connected to view the unit’s operating data and status, and the controller’s parameters can be modified.
Supports standard Modbus protocol to meet communication needs in different situations.
Built-in over-temperature protection mechanism ensures that when the temperature exceeds the set value of the device, the charging current decreases linearly with the temperature, thereby reducing the temperature rise of the controller and preventing high temperature damage.
Temperature compensation and automatic adjustment of charge and discharge parameters help to improve battery life.
Solar panel short circuit protection, battery open circuit protection and TVS lightning protection, etc.
|1||Solar panel “+” interface||6||Communication Interface|
|2||Solar panel “-” interface||7||Operation keys|
|3||Battery “-” interface||8||PV charging indicator|
|4||Battery “+” interface||9||Battery level indicator|
|5||External temperature sampling interface||10||Battery type indicator|
MPPT Technology Introductions
The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) system is an advanced charging technology that allows the solar panel to produce more energy by adjusting the operating conditions of the electrical module. Due to the non-linear characteristics of solar arrays, there is a maximum power point of an array on its curve.
Traditional controllers (Switching Charging Technology and PWM Charging Technology) cannot maintain the battery charge at this point and therefore the maximum energy of the solar panel cannot be obtained. The solar charge controller with MPPT control technology, on the other hand, can track the maximum power point of the array at all times to obtain the maximum energy to charge the battery.
Take a 12V system as an example. The peak voltage (Vpp) of the solar panel is around 17V, while the battery voltage is around 12V. In general, when the controller is charging the battery, the voltage of the solar panel is around 12V and does not fully contribute its maximum power.
However, the MPPT controller can overcome this problem. It constantly adjusts the input voltage and current of the solar panel to achieve the maximum input power.
Compared to the traditional PWM charge controller, the MPPT controller can provide the maximum power of the solar panel and thus provide a larger charging current. In general, the MPPT controller can improve the energy utilisation by 15% – 20% compared to the PWM controller.
In addition, the maximum power point often changes due to differences in ambient temperature and light conditions.
The MPPT controller can adjust parameters from time to time according to different conditions to keep the system close to its maximum operating point.
The whole process is fully automatic and does not require any adjustment by the user.
MPPT Controller Charging Stage Introductions
As one of the charging stages, MPPT cannot be used alone. It is usually necessary to combine boost, float, equalisation and other charging methods to complete the battery charging process.
A complete charging process includes Fast charge, holding charge and float charge. The charging curve is shown below:
In the fast charge phase, the battery voltage has not yet reached the set value of the full charge voltage (i.e. the equalisation/boost charge voltage) and the controller will perform an MPPT charge, using maximum solar energy to charge the battery. When the battery voltage reaches the set value, the constant voltage charge will start.
When the battery voltage reaches the set holding voltage value, the controller will perform a constant voltage charge. This process will no longer include MPPT charging and the charging current will gradually decrease over time.
There are two stages to the maintenance charge, i.e. equalising charge and boost charge. The two stages are performed without repetition, with the equalisation charge being started once every 30 days.
The default duration of the boost charge is 2 hours. The customer can also adjust the holding time and the preset value of the boost voltage point according to actual requirements. When the duration reaches the set value, the system switches to float charge.
Overcharge and excessive gas generation can damage the battery plates and cause active substances on the battery plate to come off.
Equalisation charging can cause damage if the voltage is too high or the time is too long. Please carefully check the specific requirements of the battery used in the system.
Certain types of battery benefit from regular equalisation charging, which can stir the electrolyte, balance the battery voltage and complete the chemical reaction.
Equalising charging increases the battery voltage above the standard voltage, causing the battery electrolyte to evaporate.
If it is detected that the controller automatically controls the next stage to be an equalisation charge, the equalisation charge lasts for 120 minutes (default).
The equalisation charge and boost charge are not repeated during a full charge to avoid excessive gas evolution or overheating of the battery.
MPPT Solar Charge Controller Installation Instruction
- Take great care when installing the battery. Wear safety glasses when installing the vented lead-acid battery. If you come into contact with the battery acid, rinse with clean water.
- Avoid placing metal objects near the battery to prevent the battery from short-circuiting.
- Acid gas may be produced when the battery is charged. Ensure good ventilation.
- The battery may produce flammable gas. Keep away from sparks.
- Avoid exposure to direct sunlight and rain when installing outdoors.
- Poor connection points and corroded wires can cause extreme heat to melt the wire insulation layer, burn surrounding materials and even cause a fire. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the connectors are tightened and the wires are preferably fixed with a cable tie to avoid loose connectors caused by wire vibration.
- In system wiring, the output voltage of the component may exceed the safety voltage of the human body. It is therefore necessary to use insulated tools and ensure that hands are dry.
- The battery terminal on the controller can be connected to either a single battery or a battery pack. The following instructions refer to a single battery, but also apply to a battery pack.
- Follow the battery manufacturer’s safety recommendations.
- The system connection wires are selected according to the current density, not exceeding 4A/mm2.
- Ensure that the controller is grounded.
Wiring and Installation Specifications
Wiring and installation must comply with national and local electrical codes.
PV and battery connection wires must be selected according to the rated current.
Wiring specifications are given in the following table:
|Models||PV maximum input current||Max. wire diameter at PV end
|Rated charge current||Battery wire diameter (mm²/AWG)|
Installation and wiring of the unit
Warning: Danger of explosion! Never install the controller and a vented battery in the same enclosed space! Also do not install in an enclosed area where battery gas may accumulate.
Warning: Danger, high voltage! Photovoltaic systems can generate very high open circuit voltages. Switch off the circuit breaker or fuse before wiring and take great care when wiring.
Caution! When installing the controller, ensure that there is sufficient airflow through the controller’s heat sink, leaving at least 150mm above and below the controller to allow natural convection for heat dissipation.
If the controller is installed in an enclosed box, ensure that the box provides reliable heat dissipation.
Step 1: Select a location
Avoid installing the controller where it will be exposed to direct sunlight, high temperatures or water, and ensure good ventilation around the controller.
Step 2: Mark the mounting position according to the mounting dimensions of the controller.
Drill 4 mounting holes of the appropriate size at the 4 marks. Insert screws into the top two mounting holes.
Step 3: Fasten the controller
Align the mounting holes of the controller with the two pre-mounted screws and hang up the controller. Tighten the lower two screws.
Step 4: Wiring
For installation safety, we recommend the following wiring sequence as this wiring guide.
Warning: Danger, risk of electric shock! It is strongly recommended that a fuse or circuit breaker is connected to the PV array and battery terminals to prevent the risk of electric shock during wiring or faulty operation, and that the fuse or circuit breaker is disconnected before wiring.
Warning: Danger, high voltage hazard! Photovoltaic systems can generate very high open circuit voltages. Switch off the circuit breaker or fuse before wiring and take great care when wiring.
Warning: Danger, risk of explosion! Short-circuiting the positive and negative terminals of the battery and the wires connected to them may cause a fire or explosion. Please be very careful when working.
Please connect the battery first and then the solar panel. Please follow the “+” first and “-” next method when wiring.
When all wires are firmly and securely connected, check that the wiring is correct and the polarity is reversed. When you are satisfied, connect the battery fuse or circuit breaker and check that the LED indicator lights up. If not, immediately disconnect the fuse or circuit breaker and check that the wiring is correct.
When the battery is correctly energised, connect the solar panel. If there is sufficient sunlight, the charge indicator on the controller will light up or flash and start charging the battery.
Warning: If the controller has not been charging for 10 minutes, reverse polarity of the battery may damage the internal components of the controller.
Product Operation and Display
There are three indicators on the controller
|1—PV array indication||Indicate the current charging mode of controller|
|2—BAT indication||Indicate the current state of battery.|
|3—BAT Type indication||Indicate the current battery type.|
PV array indication
|No.||Indicator status||Charging status|
|1||Steady on||MPPT charge|
(On:1s, off: 1s, cycle: 2s)
(On:0.1s, off: 1.9s, cycle: 2s)
(On:0.1s, off: 0.1s, cycle: 0.2s)
(On:0.1s, off: 0.1s, then, On:0.1s, off: 1.7s, cycle: 0.2s)
|Current limiting charge|
|Indicator color||Indicator status||Battery status|
|Green||Steady on||Battery full charge|
|Yellow||Steady on||Battery voltage normal|
|Steady on||Battery voltage below under-voltage point|
(On:0.1s, off: 0.1s, cycle: 0.2s)
|Battery over-voltage or over temperature|
BAT Type Indication:
|Indicator color||Battery type|
|Green||Sealed lead-acid battery （SLD）|
|Yellow||Gellead -acid battery (GEL)|
|Red||Flooded lead-acid battery (FLD)|
|Blue||12VLi battery (Default:LiFePo4)|
|Purple||24VLi battery (Default:LiFePo4)|
There is a button on the controller which is used in conjunction with the battery type indicator to select the battery type.
The specific mode of operation is as follows
In the current operating state, press and hold the button for 8 seconds. The battery type indicator (the colour displayed is that of the previously stored battery type) will start to flash (the controller will stop charging and other operations and enter the standby mode).
At this point, each time the button is pressed, the battery type indicator will change to a colour corresponding to a battery type. Once the battery type has been selected, press the button again for 8 seconds or do nothing for 15 seconds.
The controller will then automatically save the current battery type and return to normal operation;
In addition, if you press and hold the button for 20 seconds, the controller will restore the factory default parameters.
Product protection and system maintenance
Input power limited protection
If the power of the solar panel is higher than the rated value, the controller will limit the power of the solar panel within the rated power range to prevent damage by overcurrent, and the controller will enter the current limiting charge.
Reverse battery protection
If the battery polarity is reversed, the system will not operate.
PV input end voltage too high
If the voltage at the PV array input end is too high, the controller will automatically disconnect the PV input.
PV input end short-circuit protection
If the voltage at the PV array input end is short-circuited, the controller will stop charging; after the short-circuit is removed, charging will automatically resume.
PV input reverse polarity protection
If the polarity of the PV array is reversed, the controller will not be damaged and normal operation will continue after the wiring error is corrected.
Night reverse charge protection
Prevents the solar panel from discharging the battery at night.
TVS lightning protection
If the temperature of the controller exceeds the set value, it will reduce the charging power or stop charging.
To maintain the best long-term performance of the controller, it is recommended to carry out inspections twice a year.
Check that the airflow around the controller is unobstructed and remove any dirt or debris from the heat sink.
Check that the insulation of any exposed wires has not been damaged by sunlight, friction with other nearby objects, dry rot, insect or rodent damage, etc. If so, the wire must be repaired or replaced.
Check that the indicators are consistent with the operation of the unit. Remember to take corrective action for any malfunctions or fault indications, if necessary.
Check all wiring terminals for corrosion, damaged insulation, signs of high temperature or burning/discolouration. Tighten terminal screws.
Check for dirt, insect nests and corrosion and clean as necessary.
If the lightning arrester has failed, replace it in time to protect the controller and the user’s other equipment from lightning damage.
Warning: Danger of electric shock! Make sure that all power supplies to the controller have been disconnected before checking or operating as above!
|Zero load loss||<10mA|
|Maximum PV open circuit voltage||92V(25℃)；100V(Lowest ambient temperature)|
|Maximum power point voltage range||（Battery voltage +2V） ～ 72V|
|Rated charging current||20A||30A||40A||50A|
|Maximum PV input power||260W/12V
|Charging conversion efficiency||≤98%|
|MPPT tracking efficiency||＞99%|
|Temperature compensation coefficient||-3mv/℃/2V（default）; Lithium battery features no temperature compensation|
|Operating temperature||-35℃ ～ +45℃|
|Communication mode||TTL Serial communication|
|Altitude||≤ 3000 meters|
Battery Charging parameter settings
|Sealed lead-acid battery||Colloidal lead-acid battery||Vented lead-acid battery||Lithium battery||User defined|
|Overvoltage disconnection voltage||16.0V||16.0V||16.0V||——||9～17V|
|Equalizing charge voltage||14.6V||——||14.8V||——||9～17V|
|Boost charge voltage||14.4V||14.2V||14.6V||14.4V||9～17V|
|Floating charge voltage||13.8V||13.8V||13.8V||——||9～17V|
|Boost charge recovery voltage||13.2V||13.2V||13.2V||——||9～17V|
|Equalizing charge duration||120 min.||——||120 min.||——||0～600 min.|
|Equalizing charge interval||30 days||0 days||30 days||——||0～250D（0 indicates turning off equalizing charge function）|
|Boost charge duration||120 min.||120 min.||120 min.||——||10～600 min.|
Voltage setting principles
Equalising charge voltage ≥ Boost charge voltage ≥ Float charge voltage ≥ Boost charge recovery voltage.
overvoltage cut-off voltage> overvoltage cut-off recovery voltage.
Conversion Efficiency Curve
12V Solar Battery System
24V Solar Battery System
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