The Solar Controller is used to control and regulate the solar panel to charge the solar battery and to protect the batteries from getting damaged due to overcharging.
The battery charging and discharging conditions are regulated and controlled.
According to the power demand of the load, it also controls the power output of the solar panels and batteries to the load.
It is the main controlling part of the whole solar system.
Most of the functions are the same whether the controller is a MPPT or a PWM controller.
Here are 13 important functions of solar charge controller in your power system.
1. Charge Regulation
your solar battery needs power from solar panels, the charging process is regulated by a charge controller.
Yes, the battery is in a constant state of charge and discharge.
Charging control is the most essential function of the solar controller. It continuously transfers the power generated by the solar panel to the battery, intelligently adjusting to achieve the maximum efficiency of the transfer.
At the same time, it will detect the battery status in real time and automatically stop charging when the battery is full.
2. Battery Protection
The solar controller also has part of the BMS management function. It is always connected to the battery and can detect the battery status in real time.
Real-time battery status can be displayed on the solar controller.
The charging voltage can be automatically adjusted by the solar controller.
After the battery is fully charged, it can automatically disconnect, and when the battery is discharged to a certain level, it automatically starts recharging.
A battery activation function is also available on some battery controllers.
3. MPPT Tracking
This is a feature only available in the MPPT solar controller, which uses maximum power point tracking technology, thus ensuring maximum conversion efficiency of the solar system.
Further Reading: MPPT vs PWM which is better?
4. Load Power Control
Most solar controllers have a load port. This port is used to power small devices such as DC light bulbs.
Solar controllers have built-in load control features such as timers, light sensing, voltage regulation, etc.
Further Reading: What is solar charge load output?
5. USB Discharge
You can see USB ports on many solar controllers, some have one, some have two.
Small electronic devices such as smartphones, portable battery bank, and rechargeable flashlights can be charged using these USB ports.
6. Wind Power Charge Integration
7. Battery Reverse Polarity Protection
If the positive and negative battery terminals are reversed when connected to the solar controller, the solar controller will alarm and stop working.
You can continue to use the solar controller after correcting.
8. Lightning protection
When struck by lightning, the varistor protects the controller from damage by preventing lightning from entering.
9. Temperature Compensation
Monitors the ambient and battery temperature and adjusts the charge and discharge voltage according to the temperature to keep the battery in ideal condition.
In summer, when the ambient temperature is high, the charge voltage is reduced to prevent the battery from overheating and protect the battery,
in winter, it increases the charge voltage to store more power to the battery.
10. Remote Control
The advanced solar controller can also achieve remote monitoring and control functions, through Bluetooth or Wi-Fi to connect the charge controller.
Real-time detection of system operation status, battery charging status, remote parameter adjustment, etc.
11. Lithium Battery Charge
In the past, it was not possible to use solar systems to charge lithium or Lifepo4 batteries, but today it is a standard feature of many advanced Li ion solar controllers.
The ability to charge lithium batteries and detect their condition based on their characteristics is used in off-grid solar systems and in RV systems.
12. Dual Battery Charge
Charging dual batteries is also a function of some solar controllers, and as configurations with two or more batteries have become more popular, dedicated dual battery solar chargers have emerged.
13. Load Protection
When the load current exceeds 10A or the load is short-circuited, the load system is no longer available and the fuse is blown.
And can be used again after the fuse is replaced.